How to | Convert from Caffe to MXNet

Key topics covered include the following:

Converting Caffe trained models to MXNet

The converting tool is available at tools/caffe_converter. On the remaining of this section, we assume we are on the tools/caffe_converter directory.

How to build

If Caffe's python package is installed, namely we can run import caffe in python, then we are ready to go.

For example, we can used AWS Deep Learning AMI with both Caffe and MXNet installed.

Otherwise we can install the Google protobuf compiler and its python binding. It is easier to install, but may be slower during running.

  1. Install the compiler:

    • Linux: install protobuf-compiler e.g. sudo apt-get install protobuf-compiler for Ubuntu and sudo yum install protobuf-compiler for Redhat/Fedora.
    • Windows: Download the win32 build of protobuf. Make sure to download the version that corresponds to the version of the python binding on the next step. Extract to any location then add that location to your PATH
    • Mac OS X: brew install protobuf
  2. Install the python binding by either conda install -c conda-forge protobuf or pip install protobuf.

  3. Compile Caffe proto definition. Run make in Linux or Mac OS X, or make_win32.bat in Windows

How to use

There are three tools:

  • : convert Caffe model definition in protobuf into MXNet's Symbol in JSON format.
  • : convert Caffe model parameters into MXNet's NDArray format
  • : convert Caffe input mean file into MXNet's NDArray format

In addition, there are two tools: - : download and convert models from Caffe model zoo. - : test the converted models by checking the prediction accuracy.

Calling Caffe operators in MXNet

Besides converting Caffe models, MXNet supports calling most Caffe operators, including network layer, data layer, and loss function, directly. It is particularly useful if there are customized operators implemented in Caffe, then we do not need to re-implement them in MXNet.

How to install

This feature requires Caffe. In particular, we need to re-compile Caffe before PR #4527 is merged into Caffe. There are the steps of how to rebuild Caffe:

  1. Download Caffe. E.g. git clone
  2. Download the patch for the MXNet interface and apply to Caffe. E.g. bash cd caffe && wget && git apply 4527.patch
  3. Build and install Caffe by following the official guide.

Next we need to compile MXNet with Caffe supports

  1. Copy make/ (for Linux) or make/ (for Mac) into the MXNet root folder as if you have not done it yet
  2. Open the copied and uncomment these two lines bash CAFFE_PATH = $(HOME)/caffe MXNET_PLUGINS += plugin/caffe/ Modify CAFFE_PATH to your Caffe installation, if necessary.
  3. Then build with 8 threads make clean && make -j8.

How to use

This Caffe plugin adds three components into MXNet:

  • sym.CaffeOp : Caffe neural network layer
  • sym.CaffeLoss : Caffe loss functions
  • io.CaffeDataIter : Caffe data layer

Use sym.CaffeOp

The following example shows the definition of a 10 classes multi-layer perceptron:

data = mx.sym.Variable('data')
fc1  = mx.sym.CaffeOp(data_0=data, num_weight=2, name='fc1', prototxt="layer{type:\"InnerProduct\" inner_product_param{num_output: 128} }")
act1 = mx.sym.CaffeOp(data_0=fc1, prototxt="layer{type:\"TanH\"}")
fc2  = mx.sym.CaffeOp(data_0=act1, num_weight=2, name='fc2', prototxt="layer{type:\"InnerProduct\" inner_product_param{num_output: 64} }")
act2 = mx.sym.CaffeOp(data_0=fc2, prototxt="layer{type:\"TanH\"}")
fc3 = mx.sym.CaffeOp(data_0=act2, num_weight=2, name='fc3', prototxt="layer{type:\"InnerProduct\" inner_product_param{num_output: 10}}")
mlp = mx.sym.SoftmaxOutput(data=fc3, name='softmax')

Let's break it down. First, data = mx.sym.Variable('data') defines a variable as a placeholder for input. Then, it's fed through Caffe operators with fc1 = mx.sym.CaffeOp(...). CaffeOp accepts several arguments:

  • The inputs to Caffe operators are named as data_i for i=0, ..., num_data-1
  • num_data is the number of inputs. In default it is 1, and therefore skipped in the above example.
  • num_out is the number of outputs. In default it is 1 and also skipped.
  • num_weight is the number of weights (blobs_). Its default value is 0. We need to explicitly specify it for a non-zero value.
  • prototxt is the protobuf configuration string.

Use sym.CaffeLoss

Using Caffe loss is similar. We can replace the MXNet loss with Caffe loss. We can replace

Replacing the last line of the above example with the following two lines we can call Caffe loss instead of MXNet loss.

label = mx.sym.Variable('softmax_label')
mlp = mx.sym.CaffeLoss(data=fc3, label=label, grad_scale=1, name='softmax', prototxt="layer{type:\"SoftmaxWithLoss\"}")

Similar to CaffeOp, CaffeLoss has arguments num_data (2 in default) and num_out (1 in default). But there are two differences

  1. Inputs are data and label. And we need to explicitly create a variable placeholder for label, which is implicitly done in MXNet loss.
  2. grad_scale is the weight of this loss.

Use io.CaffeDataIter

We can also wrap a Caffe data layer into MXNet's data iterator. Below is an example for creating a data iterator for MNIST

train =
    prototxt =
    'layer { \
        name: "mnist" \
        type: "Data" \
        top: "data" \
        top: "label" \
        include { \
            phase: TEST \
        } \
        transform_param { \
            scale: 0.00390625 \
        } \
        data_param { \
            source: "caffe/examples/mnist/mnist_test_lmdb" \
            batch_size: 100 \
            backend: LMDB \
        } \
    flat           = flat,
    num_examples   = 60000,

Put it all together

The complete example is available at example/caffe